'Exonerated': or 'Within NYPD Guidelines' - the alleged conduct occurred but did not violate the NYPD's own rules, which often give officers significant discretion.
'Substantiated': The alleged conduct occurred and it violated the rules. The NYPD has discretion over what, if any, discipline is imposed.
'Unfounded': Evidence suggests that the event or alleged conduct did not occur.
'Unsubstantiated': or 'Unable to Determine' - CCRB has fully investigated but could not affirmatively conclude both that the conduct occurred and that it broke the rules.
Further details on conclusion definitions.
Named in 3 known lawsuits, $125,000 total settlements.
Spencer, Christopher vs P.O. Santos, Edelman, et al.
Case # 024554/2016E,
Supreme Court - Bronx, July 7, 2016, ended November 28, 2018
Maracallo, Ramon vs City of New York, et al.
Case # 307190/2013,
Supreme Court - Bronx, December 9, 2013
Forbes et al v. City of New York et al
Case # 302014/2012,
Supreme Court - Bronx,