'Exonerated': or 'Within NYPD Guidelines' - the alleged conduct occurred but did not violate the NYPD's own rules, which often give officers significant discretion.
'Substantiated': The alleged conduct occurred and it violated the rules. The NYPD has discretion over what, if any, discipline is imposed.
'Unfounded': Evidence suggests that the event or alleged conduct did not occur.
'Unsubstantiated': or 'Unable to Determine' - CCRB has fully investigated but could not affirmatively conclude both that the conduct occurred and that it broke the rules.
Further details on conclusion definitions.
Named in 4 known lawsuits, $290,000 total settlements.
Catania, Patrick, et Al vs City of New York, et al.
Case # 150519/2021,
Supreme Court - New York, January 19, 2021
Stevens, Reagan vs Difranco, Nicholas et al.
Case # 719484/2018,
Supreme Court - Queens, February 5, 2019, ended June 8, 2021
Cepeda, Christian vs City of New York, et al.
Case # 13CV03350,
U.S. District Court - Eastern District NY, July 1, 2013, ended March 26, 2014
Archer v. City of New York et al
Case # 12CV03979,
U.S. District Court - Eastern District NY
Plaintiff was handcuffed tightly and punched in the face by defendant officers while in route to a precinct. Plaintiff was denied medical treatment, but eventually went to the hospital and had to undergo 2 surgeries due to his injuries.